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1. Past of  ‘will’

  • I thing he will be waiting for me.  Present
  • I thought he would be waiting for me.  past
  • she says that she will marry soon.  Present Reporting 
  • she said that she would marry soon. past Reporting 
  • I know well he will not invite us all. present certainty 
  • I knew well he would  not invite us all. past certainty 
  • It is clear that none of them will pass. present clarity
  • It was clear that none of them would pass. past clarity

2. Desire in present with ‘love/like/prefer/hate’

  • I would love some coffee with snacks.
  • The present would like to join us right now.
  • What would you prefer after the meeting , sir?
  • My family would hate to travel at night.

3. Subject + wish/wishes + (that) + Subject + would + v1 to express what you want/didn’t want to happen काश !

  • काश तुम मेरी मम्मी के सामने झूठ बोल देते |
    I wish (that) you would lie to my mother.       
    Real Situation
  • काश वो लोग थोड़ा सा और इंतजार कर लेते |
    I wish they would wait for a little longer.        Real Situation

4. Would that + Subject + past tense to express a express a strong wish for a situation which is not true काश !

  • काश आज वो होता हमारे बीच |
    Would that he were with us today.   
    Unreal Situation
  • काश तुम जैसा ही मेरा एक बेटा होता |
    Would that i had a son like you.     
    Unreal Situation

Difference 

  • काश तू थोड़ी देर शांत रहता | -तू बोलता ही रहा पर चूप हो सकता था
    I wish you would be quiet for a while.   
    Real Situation
  • काश तू थोड़ा और गोरा होता | -तू गोरा नहीं है और न हो सकता
    Would that you were a bit fairer.     
    Unreal Situation

5. Past Habit 

  • टीवी ऑन करके वह सारा सारा दिन उसके सामने बैठा रहेगा |
    Turning the TV on, he will keep on sitting before it all day long.
  • टीवी ऑन करके वह सारा सारा दिन उसके सामने बैठा रहता |
    Turning the TV on, he would keep on sitting before it all day long.

1. Reminding about a duty which is not being done 

s + should + v 1   चाहिए   S + Should have + v 3     चाहिए था

  • आपको शराब पीकर नहीं चलानी चाहिए |
    You should drink and drive  the car.
  • आपको शराब पीकर नहीं चलानी चाहिए थी |
    You shouldn’t have drunk and drive  the car.

2. Giving or Asking Advice

s + should + v 1   चाहिए   S + Should have + v 3     चाहिए था

  • क्या मुझे इंटरव्यू में अंग्रेजी बोलनी चाहिए ?
    Should I speak English in the interview?
  • क्या तुम सोचते हो कि मुझे यह नौकरी पिछले साल छोड़ देनी चाहिए थी?
    Do you think I should have left this job last year?

3. To expect something true or something will happen 

s + should + v 1   चाहिए   S + Should have + v 3     चाहिए था

  • अगर शांति तुम्हारी प्यास और खोज है तो तुम्हे मिल जानी चाहिए थी |
    If peace is your thirst and quest you should have attained it.
  • चुकि रेलगाड़ी सही समय पर चल रही है इसलिए हमें सात बजे तक पहुच जाना चाहिए |
    Since the train is running on time we should reach there by seven.

4. Future Probability in Condition 

If + s + should + v 1  ,   OR  should + s + v 1 ,

  • अगर आपका मंदिर जाना हो तो मेरी और से भी एक प्रार्थना कर लेना | 
    If you should visit the temple, offer a prayer on my behalf too.
  • अगर किसी का फ़ोन आए तो बता देना मै घर नहीं हू |
    Should anyone phone, please tell I am not home.

5. Lest + S + should + v 1 (-ve sense) to express prevention ऐसा न हो कि 

  • थोड़ा और तेज चलो ऐसा न हो गाड़ी निकल जाए |
    Move a bit faster lest we should miss the train.
  • पहाड़ी इलाके में गाड़ी धीरे चलाओ ऐसा न हो कि सन्तुलन बिगड़ जाए |
    Drive slowly in hilly areas lest you should lose your balance.

6. How/why/what + should + S + v 1 …..?  to show annoyance 

  • मै उसकी मदद क्यों करू ? तुम जानते हो न कि कितना खूदगर्ज है |
    Why should I help him?  You know how selfish he is!
  • हमे कैसे पता होगा कि तूने अपनी अंगूठी कहा रखी है ?
    How should we know where you have put your ring?
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